Life Span Development - I- Prenatal Development And Infancy

Paper Code: 
HHD 124
Contact Hours: 
Max. Marks: 

This course will enable the students to :

  • Understand physiological changes during pregnancy.
  • Understand development during infancy.
  • Understand problems and  care to be taken during infancy.
Unit I: 
Prenatal Development


 a) Pregnancy- Physiological and psychological changes, Placenta- functions, fetal blood           

circulation;  Amniotic fluid- functions.

  1. Hormonal changes in pregnancy and lactation.
  2. Prenatal Development.- Stages, trimesters, Prenatal Environmental Influences, teratogens.
  3. Complications during pregnancy and child birth.
Unit II: 
Birth process& assessment



  1. Birth process- methods of delivery, uses of analgesia, anesthesia, oxytocics.
  2. Women’s rights related to pregnancy and child birth.
  3. Prematurity – Preterm, small for date, Impact of prematurity and birth weight on personality.
  4. Assessment of newborn- APGAR scale, Brazelton neonatal behavioral assessment scale, Neonatal ICU network neurobehavioral scale ( NNNS )
Unit III: 

The neonate upto 4 weeks-Physical, physiological, cognitive, social capabilities.

     b) Four weeks upto 2 Years-

  1. Physical and motor- fine and gross motor skills, social development.
  2. Emotional development - Primary and self conscious emotions.
  3. Cognitive - attention, memory, thinking and metacognition in life span .
  4. Language  development- Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas in brain, language rules- phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and pragmatics, metalinguistic awareness, telegraphic speech.
  5. Sensory and perceptual development.

a)      Physiology of brain and changes during infancy.

b)      Reflexes, stimulation and infant response.

c)      Early environment (Critical periods). Importance-need for desirable child rearing practices, effects of  environmental deprivation, maternal-child interactions, effects of maternal deprivation, early social  experience, mothering, attachment.

  1. Immunization schedule
  2. The sleep / wake cycle- REM, NREM.
  3. Massage therapy of infants, kangaroo care and bonding.

d). Temperament- classification, biological foundation, environmental factors, parenting babies with different temperaments.

e). SIDS, stranger anxiety/ separation protest/ social referencing.

  • Hurlock, E.B., (2004), Child Growth and Development, Tata Mc.Graw Hill Company
  • Papalia, D.E., and Olds, S.W., (2005), Human Development, Tata Mc.Graw Hill Company,New York.
  • Rice Philip. K (2001) Human development, Prentice Hall, New Jersy
  • Santrock, J.W., (2006), Child Development, Tata Mc.Graw Hill Publishing Company, NewDelhi
  • Suriakanthi, A., (2005), Child Development, Kavitha Publications, Gandhigram, TamilNadu.
  • Berk, L.E., (2007), Development through the Life Span, Pearson Education, New Delhi.
  • Devadas, R.P; Jaya, N( 2002), A Textbook on Child Development, Macmillan India Limited, Madras.
  • Aubrey, C. (2011) Leading and Managing in the Early Years. New York: Sage Global
  • Berk E. Laura (2005), “Child Development”, Pearson Prentice Hall, Indian Branch, New Delhi.
  • Jack . P. Shankoff and Deborah Phillips (2000) “ Neurons to Neighborhoods” National Academy Press
  • ShrimaliShyam Sunder (2005), “Child Development”, Pearson Education (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. Delhi.
Academic Year: